DATA & RESOURCES

Culture research

1. Cultural dimensions

A widely used approach to conceptualize and measure culture in international business and management is through cultural dimensions. This dimensional approach relies on the premise that all societies face similar fundamental challenges and their responses to these challenges point to dimensions on which they can be distinguished and studied.

Please find below cultural dimensions data available for download for Hofstede (2001), GLOBE (House et al., 2004), Schwartz (2004), and the cultural tightness-looseness dimension (Gelfand et al., 2011).

 
 

Hofstede cultural scores for download:​

Please cite: Hofstede, G. 2001. Culture's consequences: Comparing values, behaviors, institutions and organizations across nations. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.

For an application of Hofstede’s scores, please refer to: Li, C., & Parboteeah, K. P. 2015. The effect of culture on the responsiveness of firms to mimetic forces: Imitative foreign joint venture entries into China, 1985-2003. Journal of World Business, 50(3): 465–476.)

 

GLOBE cultural scores for download:

Please cite: House, R. J., Hanges, P. J., Javidan, M., Dorfman, P., & Gupta, V. 2004. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA.

For an application of GLOBE scores, please refer to:

  • Li, C., Brodbeck, F. C., Shenkar, O., Ponzi, L., & Fisch, J. H. 2017. Embracing the foreign: Cultural attractiveness and international strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 38(4): 950–971.

  • Schneid, M., Isidor, R., Li, C., & Kabst, R. 2015. The influence of cultural context on the relationship between gender diversity and team performance: a meta-analysis. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 26(6): 733–756.

Schwartz cultural scores for download:​                  Read me: 

Please cite: Schwartz, S. H. 2006. A theory of cultural value orientations: Explication and applications. Comparative Sociology, 5: 137–182.

 

Tightness-looseness scores for download:

Please cite: Gelfand, M. J., Raver, J. L., Nishii, L., Leslie, L. M., Lun, J., Lim, B. C., Duan, L., Almaliach, A., Ang, S., Arnadottir, J., & Aycan, Z. 2011. Differences between tight and loose cultures: A 33-nation study. Science, 332: 1100–1104.

For an application of tightness-looseness scores, please refer to: Gelfand, M. J., Gordon, S., Li, C., Choi, V., & Prokopowicz, P. 2018. One reason mergers fail: The two cultures aren’t compatible, Harvard Business Review, October.

 

2. Cultural distance, cultural clusters, cultural attractiveness

Please find below data for the Kogut and Singh (1988) index, Ronen and Shenkar (2013) clusters, and cultural attractiveness (Li et al., 2017).

Kogut and Singh (1988) index for download:​

Please cite: Kogut, B., & Singh, H. 1988. The effect of national culture on the choice of entry mode. Journal of International Business Studies, 19(3): 411–432.

Before using this index, please read the following critiques and suggestions for overcoming its limitations:

  • Li, C., Brodbeck, F. C., Shenkar, O., Ponzi, L., & Fisch, J. H. 2017. Embracing the foreign: Cultural attractiveness and international strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 38(4): 950–971.

  • Shenkar, O. 2001. Cultural distance revisited: Towards a more rigorous conceptualization and measurement of cultural differences. Journal of International Business Studies, 32(3): 519–535.

  • Shenkar, O., Luo, Y., & Yeheskel, O. 2008. From “distance” to “friction”: Substituting metaphors and redirecting intercultural research. Academy of Management Review, 33(4): 905–923.

  • Tung, R. L., & Verbeke, A. 2010. Beyond Hofstede and GLOBE: Improving the quality of cross-cultural research. Journal of International Business Studies, 41: 1259–1274.

 

Ronen and Shenkar (2013) clusters for download:                           Country-dyadic data: 

Please cite: Ronen, S., & Shenkar, O. 2013. Mapping world cultures: Cluster formation, sources and implications. Journal of International Business Studies, 44(9): 867–897.

For an application of the cultural clusters, please refer to:

  • Li, C., Brodbeck, F. C., Shenkar, O., Ponzi, L., & Fisch, J. H. 2017. Embracing the foreign: Cultural attractiveness and international strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 38(4): 950–971.

  • Li., C., & Reuer, J. R. forthcoming. The impact of corruption on market reactions to international strategic alliances, Journal of International Business Studies.

  • Li., C., Shenkar, O., Newburry, W., & Tang, Y. forthcoming. How country reputation differentials influence market reaction to international acquisitions, Journal of Management Studies.

 

Cultural attractiveness index for download:​

Please cite: Li, C., Brodbeck, F. C., Shenkar, O., Ponzi, L., & Fisch, J. H. 2017. Embracing the foreign: Cultural attractiveness and international strategy. Strategic Management Journal, 38(4): 950–971.

 

Note: Country names are from the World Bank.